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金砖国家应对气候变化高级别会议联合声明

文章来源:生态环境部发布时间:2022年05月15日 点击数: 1858 次

  金砖国家应对气候变化高级别会议联合声明

  1. 金砖国家应对气候变化高级别会议于2022年5月13日以视频方式举行。会议由中华人民共和国生态环境部部长黄润秋主持,中国气候变化事务特使解振华,中华人民共和国生态环境部副部长赵英民,巴西联邦共和国环境部部长若阿金•莱特,俄罗斯联邦自然资源与生态部副部长谢尔盖•阿诺普里年科,印度共和国环境、森林和气候变化部兼劳工与就业部部长布潘德尔•亚达夫,南非共和国森林、渔业和环境部部长芭芭拉•克里西出席会议。

  2. 当前,全球特别是发展中国家正在从包括新冠肺炎疫情、经济危机及力争实现可持续发展目标等多重挑战中艰难复苏。金砖国家应对气候变化高级别会议旨在携手应对气候变化,共同探讨加快低碳和气候韧性转型、实现可持续、平衡和包容性复苏发展的道路。

  3. 我们共同纪念《联合国气候变化框架公约》(《公约》)达成30周年,并重申各方应恪守《公约》及其《巴黎协定》目标、原则和制度框架。我们回顾30年前《公约》的通过象征着国际社会充分认识到了气候变化对自然和人类带来的不利影响,并且各缔约方致力于在共同确立的共识、框架和原则下采取行动积极应对。我们重申《公约》及其《巴黎协定》作为国际社会合作应对气候变化的基本法律遵循和主渠道地位,承诺致力于推动《公约》及其《巴黎协定》全面有效实施。

  4. 我们重申多边主义是应对气候变化等全球性挑战的重要路径。各方应坚持多边主义、聚焦具体气候行动。我们呼吁各国坚持共同但有区别的责任原则和各自能力原则等《公约》及其《巴黎协定》的原则,考虑不同国情,在已有共识的基础上,按照国家自主决定贡献的制度安排,增强互信,加强合作,准确、平衡和全面实施《公约》及其《巴黎协定》。发展中国家需获得实施手段支持以贡献最大努力。

  5. 我们高度重视应对气候变化,并强调金砖国家在气候变化多边进程中发挥了积极引领作用,为全球低碳、气候韧性及可持续发展作出了巨大贡献。我们认识到,在世界经济复苏、实现包括努力消除贫困等可持续发展目标的背景下,发展中国家实现全球碳中和目标面临更多困难和挑战。我们根据各自国情和能力提出了反映最高雄心的国家自主贡献,在可持续发展框架下开展了富有雄心的应对气候变化行动,并取得了显著成效。

  6. 中国一直在实施积极的应对气候变化国家战略。在超额完成对国际社会承诺的2020年气候行动目标的基础上,中国进一步提出了二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和的目标愿景和一系列提高国家自主贡献力度的新举措。截至2021年,中国单位GDP能源消费强度比2012年下降26.2%,可再生能源装机突破10亿千瓦,全球新增绿化面积四分之一来自中国。中国已提交更新的国家自主贡献和长期温室气体低排放发展战略,成立了碳达峰碳中和工作领导小组,完成碳达峰碳中和顶层设计,碳达峰碳中和“1+N”政策体系基本建立。中国正在规划建设4.5亿千瓦大型风电光伏基地,将积极推动全国碳市场建设,大力支持发展中国家能源绿色低碳发展,不再新建境外煤电项目。中国提出了全球发展倡议,旨在加速推进2030年可持续发展议程,并将气候变化及绿色发展作为8个优先合作领域之一。

  7. 巴西致力于应对气候变化带来的不利影响。在《公约》第二十六次缔约方会议(COP26)上,巴西提升了减缓雄心,提出了2030年温室气体排放量将在2005年基础上减少50%的新目标。巴西宣布了实现2050年气候中和承诺的战略措施,包括到2028年实现零非法毁林、到2030年恢复和重新造林1800万公顷,以及鼓励扩大国家铁路网。巴西还加入了《全球甲烷协议》,并于近期宣布制定“减少甲烷排放国家计划——零甲烷”,该计划将致力于通过减少甲烷排放创造经济资源。巴西果断决然地完成了《巴黎协定》实施细则的谈判,期待碳市场能够调动更多资源,并进一步增强全球应对气候变化的雄心。

  8. 俄罗斯坚定坚持《公约》和《巴黎协定》的原则并始终致力于其确立的目标。俄罗斯宣布到2060年实现碳中和。俄罗斯正在努力对工业和能源部门进行深度重组,45%的能源平衡得益于核能发电等低排放能源来源。俄罗斯计划提高伴生气的利用,并在所有经济部门实施大规模的生态现代化和能源效率项目。俄罗斯正在建造基础设施以生产氢气并将其作为原材料和能源载体。俄罗斯认识到主要目标之一是提高适应气候变化能力,并强调无论政治环境如何,气候变化都将影响到每个人。俄罗斯将于2022年7月在圣彼得堡举行国际会议并邀请金砖伙伴参加。

  9. 印度致力于采取强有力的气候行动,包括推广基于理性消费和减少浪费的可持续生活方式。印度已经启动了跨领域的政策,涉及能源、运输和工业等多个重要经济部门,并在实现甚至超越其《巴黎协定》下初始国家自主贡献方面取得了突出成效。单位GDP排放强度比2005年水平降低了24%,这表明印度的经济增长与排放已经逐渐脱钩。印度的非化石能源发电装机已经达到了1.59亿千瓦,提前8年实现了其国家自主贡献提出的累计非化石能源发电装机容量占比达到40%。随后,印度宣布了强化的气候承诺,包括到2030年非化石能源发电装机容量占比50%、达到5亿千瓦,经济碳排放强度降低45%,到2070年实现净零排放目标。与此同时,印度还启动了“国家氢能使命”,使用绿色能源生产氢气以替代化石燃料。印度还在努力推进一项雄心勃勃的生物燃料计划,目标是到2025-26年将汽油中的乙醇掺混比达到20%,到2030年将柴油中生物柴油混合比提升到 5%。印度的森林和树木覆盖率正在稳步增加,已达24.62%。印度在过去三年中新增加了23个湿地作为拉姆萨尔湿地,现拥有南亚最大的拉姆萨尔湿地网络。这反映了印度在强化基于生态系统方法应对气候变化方面的巨大努力。除了雄心勃勃的国内减缓和适应行动外,印度还在推动务实的、基于问题的全球合作,正如印度在COP21上启动的“国际太阳能联盟”。印度在COP26上启动了“绿色电网倡议——同一个太阳、同一个世界、同一个电网”,该全球合作倡议框架旨在有效利用全球可再生能源,加速调动、推进绿色电网行动所需的技术和财政资源。印度还在抗灾基础设施联盟(CDRI)下启动了“韧性岛屿国家基础设施”(IRIS),以支持小岛屿发展中国家(SIDS)通过系统方式建立韧性、可持续和包容的基础设施并实现可持续发展。

  10. 南非在实现气候目标方面取得了积极进展。南非成立了总统气候委员会,通过了国家适应战略,实施了具有严格监管和评估的强化减缓系统,制定了长期低排放发展战略。南非在COP26前更新了更具雄心的国家自主贡献,将排放峰值年提前了十年。该国家自主贡献还包含了适应相关的详细信息,其作为南非的第一份适应信息通报,阐明了南非对于国际社会支持的需要。根据《巴黎协定》的内容和精神,南非更新的2030年目标的排放范围下限与1.5℃路径一致,范围上限与2℃路径一致。南非在该范围内可实现的程度将取决于获得的国际支持。南非正在进一步制定详细计划,以实现向低碳经济和气候适应型社会的公正转型,其核心是为受到影响的工人和社区提供支持。

  11. 我们欢迎候任主席国埃及举办COP27的努力并表达对其的全力支持。我们致力于与各方一道以公开透明、广泛参与、缔约方驱动、协商一致的方式推动COP27取得成功。COP27应以落实为重点,并强调强化适应和落实发达国家为发展中国家提供可信、充足、可预测、及时、新增及额外的资金支持及技术转移的紧迫性。

  12. 我们强调,发达国家应率先提高减缓行动力度,履行气候资金承诺,并尊重发展中国家和经济转型国家的发展权及政策空间。我们呼吁各方聚焦落实行动,切实将各自气候目标和愿景转化成落实的政策、措施和行动。

  13. 考虑到通过国际协助应对由气候变化带来的损失和损害的需要,我们强调提高适应气候变化能力及发达国家保障适当及可预测的适应资金支持是发展中国家面临的迫切需求及优先事项。我们欢迎“格拉斯哥-沙姆沙伊赫全球适应目标工作计划”,其作为对于全球应对气候变化努力的贡献,强调了指导强化的适应行动和支持的重要意义。此外,我们欢迎格拉斯哥对话讨论为避免、尽量减少和应对与气候变化不利影响相关的损失和损害活动提供资金的安排。我们呼吁《公约》所列附件二发达国家扩大支持发展中国家适应气候变化的力度并增强发展中国家对于气候变化的韧性,尽早提出落实在COP26承诺的在2025年前向发展中国家提供相比2019年水平至少两倍的适应资金的细化和明确的路线图。

  14. 我们强调《公约》所列附件二发达国家提供支持的力度应与发展中国家的行动力度相匹配。根据《公约》及其《巴黎协定》,提供和动员资金是发达国家对发展中国家的责任。此外,行动的雄心需要与为发展中国家提供支持的雄心相匹配。我们非常关切地注意到《公约》所列附件二发达国家尚未兑现包括到2020年每年1000亿美元等在内的气候资金承诺。我们敦促《公约》所列附件二发达国家在COP27前尽快兑现上述承诺,并就设定2025年后新的气候资金集体量化资金目标作出更大贡献,扩大向发展中国家提供资金、技术开发和转移、能力建设等必要的支持,帮助发展中国家有能力在可持续发展的背景下实施气候行动。

  15. 我们致力于加强应对气候变化合作,拓宽合作领域、深化合作内容。我们将在国家、地方、产业、企业等层面开展清洁能源、低碳技术、可持续及韧性基础设施建设、碳市场、适应气候变化等领域的信息交流和合作,携手推动绿色低碳发展政策研究、技术合作和示范项目共建,以科技创新为驱动,推进能源资源、产业结构、消费结构转型升级,共同探索低碳、可持续的发展路径。我们赞赏在金砖国家框架内围绕气候变化相关议题的讨论,并欢迎和鼓励各金砖国家开展应对气候变化和可持续低碳转型活动。

  16. 我们反对将气候变化问题政治化,反对一切形式的单边主义、保护主义,强调单边强制措施违反《公约》及其《巴黎协定》宗旨原则,严重破坏多边合作并削弱了有关国家更好地应对气候变化的能力。我们反对任何利用气候议程采取限制贸易和投资措施、设置新的绿色贸易壁垒,诸如强加违反世界贸易组织多边规则的碳边境调节机制。

  17. 我们鼓励各国围绕落实气候目标的具体政策、措施和行动,特别是最佳实践信息、困难和挑战进行分享。COP27应成为各国将已有目标和承诺转化为切实行动并共同努力应对全球气候变化挑战的转折点。

Joint Statement issued at the BRICS High-level Meeting on Climate Change

1. The BRICS High-level Meeting on Climate Change was organized virtually on 13th May 2022. The meeting was chaired by H.E. Mr. HUANG Runqiu, Minister of Ecology and Environment of the People's Republic of China, and attended by H.E. Mr. XIE Zhenhua, China Special Envoy for Climate Change, H.E. Mr. ZHAO Yingmin, Vice Minister of Ecology and Environment of the People's Republic of China, H.E. Mr. Joaquim Leite, Minister of the Environment of the Federative Republic of Brazil, H.E. Mr. Sergey Anoprienko, Deputy Minister of the Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation, H.E. Mr. Bhupender Yadav, Minister of the Environment, Forest and Climate Change & Labor and Employment of the Republic of India and H.E. Ms. Barbara Creecy, Minister of the Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment of the Republic of South Africa. 

2. Right now, the world, particularly developing countries, is struggling to recover from multiple challenges, including COVID-19 pandemic, economic crisis and struggling to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. The BRICS High-level Meeting on Climate Change aims to jointly address climate change, explore approaches to accelerate low-carbon and climate resilient transition and achieve sustainable, balanced and inclusive recovery and development.

3. We jointly celebrate the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Convention) and reiterate the commitments to the goals, principles and institutional framework of the Convention and its Paris Agreement. We recall that the adoption of the Convention 30 years ago symbolized the international community's full recognition of the adverse impacts of climate change on nature and humankind, with the Parties taking on commitments to take actions to respond actively within the jointly-established consensus, framework and principles. We reaffirm the role of the Convention and its Paris Agreement as the fundamental legal basis and main channel for international cooperation on addressing climate change, and are committed to promoting the full and effective implementation of the Convention and its Paris Agreement. 

4. We reiterate that multilateralism is an important way to address global challenges, such as climate change. All Parties need to adhere to multilateralism and focus on concrete climate actions. We call on all Parties to adhere to the principles of the Convention and its Paris Agreement, including common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances, and to increase mutual trust, strengthen cooperation, implement the Convention and its Paris Agreement in an accurate, balanced and comprehensive way, in accordance with the institutional arrangement of nationally determined contributions, and based on existing consensus. Developing countries require enabling means of implementation support to contribute their best effort. 

5. We attach great importance to addressing climate change and highlight that BRICS countries have played an active and leading role in the multilateral process on climate change and contributed greatly to global low-carbon, climate resilient and sustainable development. We recognize that developing countries face more difficulties and challenges in achieving the goals of global carbon neutrality in the context of the world economy recovery, achieving sustainable development goals, including making efforts to eradicate poverty. We have already set forth nationally determined contributions reflecting our highest ambition based on national circumstances and capabilities. We have taken ambitious actions to address climate change within the sustainable development framework and have achieved great progress. 

6. China has been implementing proactive national strategies on addressing climate change. On the basis of exceeding the 2020 climate action goal promised to the international community, China has further announced the goal and vision of striving to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060, and scaled up its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) through a series of new measures. By 2021, China’s energy consumption intensity per unit of GDP was 26.2% lower than that in 2012, installed capacity of renewable energy exceeds 1 billion kilowatts, and a quarter of the global net increase in green leaf area comes from China. China has communicated updated NDC and Long-Term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy, set up the Leading Group on Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality, finalized the top-level design on carbon peaking and carbon neutrality and basically established the "1+N" policy framework for carbon peak and carbon neutrality. China is planning and developing large wind power and photovoltaic bases with an installed capacity of 450 million kilowatts, will actively promote the construction of the national carbon market, step up support for other developing countries in developing green and low-carbon energy, and will not build new coal-fired power projects abroad. China has put forward its Global Development Initiative to accelerate the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which takes climate change and green development as one of its 8 priority cooperation areas.  

7. Brazil is fully committed to combating the adverse impacts of climate change. At COP 26, Brazil increased its mitigation ambition, with a new target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 50% by 2030, based on 2005 levels. Brazil announced strategic measures for our 2050 climate neutrality commitment, including zero illegal deforestation by 2028, restoring and reforesting 18 million hectares of forests by 2030, as well as encouraging the expansion of the national rail network. Brazil also joined the Global Pact on Methane and, more recently, announced the creation of the National Program for the Reduction of Methane Emissions – Zero Methane, which will be responsible for generating economic resources through the reduction of methane emissions in the country. Brazil acted decisively to close the Paris Agreement Rulebook and hopes that carbon markets can mobilize more resources and generate a further increase in global ambition to combat climate change.

8. The Russian Federation strongly adheres to the principles of the Convention and the Paris Agreement, consistently pursuing their goals. Russia has announced the achievement of carbon neutrality by 2060. Russia is working on a radical restructurisation of the Russian industry and energy sectors, with 45% of Russia's energy balance already stemming from low-emission energy sources, including nuclear power generation. The Russian Federation intends to increase the utilization of associated gas, implement a large-scale program of ecological modernization and energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy. Russia is creating the infrastructure for the production of hydrogen to be used as a raw material and energy carrier. Recognizing that one of our key objectives is to improve our capacity for adaptation to the climate change and emphasizing that the climate change affects everyone regardless of the political environment, Russia is holding an international conference in St. Petersburg in July 2022 and invites our BRICS partners to participate.

9. India is committed to strong climate actions including promotion of sustainable lifestyles based on mindful consumption and reduction of waste. India has launched policies spanning major economic sectors including, inter alia, energy, transportation and industry, and has made great strides towards meeting and even exceeding its initial NDCs under the Paris Agreement. Emissions intensity of GDP has already reduced by 24% over 2005 levels, indicating progressive decoupling of emissions from economic growth. India has installed 159 GW of non-fossil electric capacity, thereby already achieving its NDC pertaining to 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources, almost 8 years ahead of schedule. Subsequently, India has announced enhanced climate commitments including 50 percent of installed electric capacity from non fossil fuel sources to reach 500 GW by 2030, reducing carbon intensity of the economy by 45 per cent by 2030 and to achieve the target of net zero emissions by 2070. Alongside, a National Hydrogen Mission has been launched for generating hydrogen from green energy sources to create alternatives to fossil fuels. India is also striving forward on an ambitious biofuel program that targets 20% Ethanol Blending in Petrol by 2025-26 and 5% blending of Biodiesel in diesel by 2030. India's forest and tree cover is steadily increasing, and 24.62% of its geographic area is under forest and tree cover. India has added 23 wetlands as Ramsar sites in last three years and now has the largest network of Ramsar sites in South Asia. This reflects India’s strong efforts in strengthening ecosystem based approaches for combating climate change. Besides ambitious domestic actions for mitigation and adaptation, India is promoting practical, issue based global cooperation as demonstrated by its launch of the International Solar Alliance at COP21. This was followed by launch of a ‘Green Grids Initiative - One Sun, One World, One Grid’ at COP26, to build a framework for a global cooperation initiative targeted at effective utilisation of renewable sources across the globe and accelerate the mobilisation of technical and financial resources needed to advance action on green grids. India also launched 'Infrastructure for Resilient Island States' (IRIS) under Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) for support to Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in achieving sustainable development through a systematic approach to resilient, sustainable, and inclusive infrastructure.

10. South Africa is making progress on its climate goals. It has established a Presidential Climate Commission, adopted a National Adaptation Strategy, implemented an enhanced Mitigation system with robust monitoring and evaluation, and developed a long-term Low Emissions Development Strategy. South Africa’s updated and significantly more ambitious NDC submitted ahead of COP26 brings forward the peaking of its emissions by a decade and contains detailed information on adaptation, which serves as the Country’s first adaptation communications, as well as the support South Africa requires from the international community. In line with the letter and spirit of the Paris Agreement, the lower end of South Africa’s 2030 updated target emission range is consistent with a 1.5-degree pathway, while the upper end of the range is consistent with a 2-degree pathway. Where South Africa gets to in this range will depend on the international support it receives. South Africa is further developing detailed plans to enable a Just Transition to a low carbon economy and climate resilient society. These plans will locate support for affected workers and communities and will be at the centre of these plans.

11. We welcome the efforts of and express our full support to the incoming Egyptian Presidency of COP27. We are committed to working towards the success of COP27 with all other Parties in an open, transparent, inclusive, Party-driven and consensus-based manner. COP27 should prioritize implementation and highlight the reinforcement of adaptation and the delivery and urgency of developed countries’ commitments to provide credible, adequate, predictable, timely, new and additional financial support and technology transfer to developing countries. 

12. We underline that developed countries should take the lead in scaling up mitigation actions and ambition and provision of climate financing, and respect the right to development and policy space of developing countries as well as countries in transition. We call for all Parties to focus on implementation actions, faithfully translating their climate goals and visions into implementation policies, measures and actions. 

13. We emphasize that improving capacity and securing, appropriate and predictable funding from developed countries for climate change adaptation is the urgent need and priority for developing countries, as is their need for international assistance in dealing with Loss and Damage caused by climate change. We welcome the Glasgow–Sharm el-Sheikh work programme on the Global Goal on Adaptation, underscoring the importance of guiding enhanced adaptation actions and support, which is a contribution towards the global effort to address climate change. Furthermore, we welcome the Glasgow Dialogue to discuss the arrangements for the funding of activities to avert, minimize and address loss and damage associated with the adverse impacts of climate change. We call for the developed countries in Annex II to the Convention to scale-up the support for developing countries to adapt to climate change, enhance their resilience to climate change and come forward with a detailed and explicit roadmap on how the commitment made at COP26 to at least double climate finance for adaptation to developing countries from 2019 levels by 2025 will be realized, as soon as possible. 

14. We underscore that the support provided by developed countries in Annex II to the Convention should be commensurate with the climate actions taken by developing countries. The provision and mobilization of resources under the Convention and its Paris Agreement is a responsibility of developed countries towards developing countries. Furthermore, ambition of action needs to be matched with ambition of support to developing countries. We note with deep concern that developed countries in Annex II to the Convention have not yet fulfilled their commitments on climate finance, including mobilizing USD 100 billion per year by 2020. We urge them to fulfill the commitments as soon as possible before COP27, make greater contributions towards setting the new collective quantified goal on climate finance post-2025, and scale up indispensable support to developing countries on finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building, to assist developing countries to take climate actions in the context of sustainable development. 

15. We are committed to strengthening collaboration on climate change, broadening the areas and deepening the contents of cooperation. We will carry out information exchanges and cooperation at the national, local, industrial and enterprise levels, in multiple fields including clean energy, low-carbon technology, sustainable and resilient infrastructure construction, carbon market and climate change adaptation, jointly promote the policy research on low-carbon green growth, technology cooperation and joint pilot projects. With science and technology innovation being the driver, we will promote the transition and upgrading of energy, resources, industrial structure and consumption structure, jointly exploring pathways for low-carbon and sustainable development. We appreciate the discussions on climate change-related issues within the BRICS framework. We welcome and encourage activities of the BRICS countries to address climate change and sustainable and low-carbon transition. 

16. We oppose the politicization of climate change issues and all forms of unilateralism and protectionism, emphasizing that unilateral measures violate the objectives and principles of the Convention and its Paris Agreement, and seriously undermine multilateral cooperation and the ability of the concerned countries to combat climate change. We oppose any measures to restrict trade and investment and setting up new green trade barriers with the pretext of addressing climate change, such as the imposition of Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanisms, which are incompatible with multilateral rules under the World Trade Organization. 

17. We encourage all Parties to share specific policies, measures and actions towards climate goals, especially the information on best practices, difficulties and challenges. COP27 needs to represent the turning-point for all Parties to translate existing goals and pledges into concrete actions and work together to address the challenge of global climate change. 


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